Tagged: Better know a Canadian institution

Better know a Canadian institution: the Port Authorities of Canada

In 1936 the government passed the National Harbours Board Act, establishing a national board of control over Canadian ports in the newly-organized Department of Transport. (Ports had previously been administered on a local basis by officials in the Department of Marine and Fisheries.)

The Chairmen of the National Harbours Board were:

Ralph Osborne Caampney, 1936-40.
Robert Knowlton Smith, 1940-55.
Bennett John Roberts, 1955-58.
Maurice-Georges Archer, 1958-62.
Howard Alan Mann, 1962-71.
Delmer Edgar Taylor, 1971-76.
Pierre A. H. Franche, 1976-83.

In 1983, the National Harbours Board Act was repealed and the National Harbours Board was replaced by the Ports Corporation Act with a Crown Corporation, the Canada Ports Corporation, which allowed for greater decentralization in controlling the ports.

The Presidents of the Canada Ports Corporation were:

Jacques Auger, 1983-85.
Denis de Belleval, 1985-87.
Jean-Michel Tessier, 1987-96.
Donald N. Morrison (acting), 1996-97.
Neil McNeil, 1997-98.

The Chairmen of the Board of Directors of the Canada Ports Corporation were:

Ian Stott, 1983-85.
The Hon. Arthur Ronald Huntington, 1985-90.
Patrick W. A. Reid, 1990-92.
Arnold E. Masters, 1992-97.
Carole Taylor, 1997-98.

In 1998 the government passed the Canada Marine Act, dissolving the Canada Ports Corporation and replacing it with 19 new Port Authorities, each a Crown Corporation controlling a major port: Belledune, NB; Chicoutimi, QC; Halifax, NS; Hamilton, ON; Montreal, QC; Nanaimo, BC; New Westminster, BC; Port Alberni, BC; Prince Rupert, BC; Quebec City, QC; Richmond, BC; Saint John, NB; Sept-Îles, QC; St. John’s, NL; Thunder Bay, ON; Toronto, ON; Trois-Rivières, QC; Vancouver, BC; and Windsor, ON.

In 2008, the Vancouver Port Authority, the Fraser River Port Authority in New Westminster and the North Fraser Port Authority in Richmond amalgamated to become the Vancouver Fraser Port Authority. In 2012, the harbour commission of Oshawa, ON, was elevated to a full Port Authority under this scheme.


Better know a Canadian functionary: more officers of the Central Experimental Farm and the Department of Agriculture Science Service

This is a continuation of an earlier post I made on this subject, which you can find here.

In 1886 Parliament authorized the Department of Agriculture to establish a nationwide system of experimental farms to work on ways to improve all aspects of agricultural production in Canada. The main farm was the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa, which still exists today as a National Historic Site even though the city has long since grown up around the farm and the land must be worth a fortune by now.

The original head of all projects conducted by the Experimental Farms Service was the Dominion Agriculturist, a post originally filled by the Farm’s director, the agricultural chemist William Saunders. The Dominion Agriculturalist was soon after joined by the Dominion Botanist, moved under the Farm’s command from elsewhere in the Department of Agriculture in 1887; the Dominion Chemist, created in 1887; the Dominion Poultry Husbandman, created in 1888; the Dominion Cerealist, created by William Saunders in 1910 for his son Charles; and the Dominion Horticulturalist, which was split off of the Dominion Botanist in 1910.

In 1912, the office of the Dominion Agriculturalist was split into two jobs: the Dominion Animal Husbandman, who handled the raising of animals, and the Dominion Field Husbandman, who handled not only vegetable crops, but also the physical aspects of farms, such as drainage and soil engineering. (“Husbandman” is an archaic word for a farmer, from a lesser-used verb form of “husband” meaning “to manage”.) In that same year, the Dominion Agrostologist was split from the Dominion Botanist to study grasses and other forage crops. The Experimental Farms Service set up a Tobacco Division in 1913, then established the Dominion Apiarist to study bees in 1914. The Farms Service ran its own Extension & Publicity department from 1914 until it was merged into the Department of Agriculture’s publications service in 1935. (“Extension” is the process of educating farmers on technological and scientific advancements.) In 1915, the Farm started an Illustration Stations Service, where ordinary farmers could let the government take over a bit of their land and use the latest crops and techniques in order to show off how much better they were to the surrounding community. Another major new department of the Experimental Farms Service came in 1917, with the Economic Fibre Production Division, concerning the growth of plants used in textile production, such as flax. Finally, the Farm set up a Bacteriology division in 1923 to investigate various diseases and fermentations.

In 1937, the Department of Agriculture expanded its Entomology Branch (founded in 1914) and founded the Science Service for its more laboratory-oriented research interests, moving the Chemistry, Botany and Bacteriology divisions from the Experimental Farms Service and merging the latter with the office of the Dairy and Cold Storage Commissioner to form the Bacteriology & Dairy Research Division. The Science Service was then run separately from the Experimental Farms Service, although the Science Service headquarters was moved to the Central Experimental Farm in 1947.

In the Experimental Farms Service, the Economic Fibre Production division was merged into the Field Husbandry division in 1952, and the Poultry Husbandry division was merged into the Animal Husbandry division in 1957. Finally, in 1959 both the Experimental Farms Service and the Science Service were dissolved and reformed as the Research Division of the Department of Agriculture.

The Directors of the Experimental Farms were:
William Saunders, 1886-1911.
J.H. Grisdale, 1911-19.
Edgar Spinney Archibald, 1919-50.
E.S. Hopkins, 1950-55.
Cyril Harold Goulden, 1955-59.

The Dominion Agriculturalists were:
William Saunders, 1886-90.
James W. Robertson, 1890-96.
William Saunders (acting), 1897-98
J.H. Grisdale, 1899-1912.

The Dominion Poultry Husbandmen were:
A.G. Gilbert, 1888-1913.
F.C. Elford, 1913-37.
G. Robertson, 1937-46.
H.S. Gutteridge, 1946-57.

The Dominion Animal Husbandmen were:
Edgar Spinney Archibald, 1912-20.
George B. Rothwell, 1920-31.
G.W. Muir, 1931-51.
H.K.C.A. Rasmussen, 1951-59.

The Dominion Field Husbandmen were:
J.H. Grisdale, 1912-19.
Edgar Spinney Archibald, 1919-20.
E.S. Hopkins, 1920-46.
P.O. Ripley, 1946-59.

The Chiefs of the Tobacco Division were:
Felix Charlan, 1913-24.
C.M. Slagg, 1924-28.
N.T. Nelson, 1928-46.
Norman MacRae, 1946-59.

The Chiefs of Extension & Publicity for the Experimental Farms Service were:
J.F. Watson, 1914-17.
W.A. Lang, 1917-21.
F.C. Nunnick, 1921-35.

The Supervisors of the Illustration Stations Division were:
John Fixter, 1915-27.
J.C. Moynan, 1928-53.
A.E. Barrett, 1953-59.

The Chiefs of Economic Fibre Production were:
G.G. Bramhill, 1917-18.
R.J. Hutchinson, 1918-52.

The Directors of the Department of Agriculture Science Service were:
J.M. Swaine, 1937-46.
K.W. Neatby, 1946-58.
Robert Glen, 1958-59.

The only Dominion Agricultural Bacteriologist was Allan Grant Lochhead, 1923-37.

The Chiefs of the Bacteriology & Dairy Research Division (Bacteriology Division after 1953) were:
Allan Grant Lochhead, 1937-56.
H. Katznelson, 1956-59.

Better know a Canadian functionary: the Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel

One of the tricky things about Parliament is that it spends all its time making and changing laws, but there are plenty of people involved in that process have zero legal training. For this reason, on the staff of both the House of Commons and the Senate, there is an official known as the Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel, who reports to the Clerk of their respective chambers. As the name suggests, they have a dual duty: as Law Clerk, they are in charge of making sure that new bills don’t make a pig’s breakfast of the existing law; and as Parliamentary Counsel, its his job to intervene in any court case involving an MP or Senator to make sure the privileges and immunities afforded to a member of the House or Senate aren’t violated.

The position of Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel to the House of Commons was established in 1867. Between 1922 and 1951, the title of Parliamentary Counsel was abolished and the position of Law Clerk of the House of Commons was held jointly by two people. The Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel was abolished again in 1991, with the workload split between a Legal Services Office reporting to the Clerk of the House and a Legislative Counsel Office reporting to the Deputy Clerk of the House. That decision was reversed in 1999 and things were put back the way they were before.

The Law Clerks and Parliamentary Counsels to the House of Commons of Canada have been:

Gustavus William Wicksteed, 1867-87.
William Wilson, 1887-89.
Frederick Augustus McCord, 1889-1908.
Arthur Henry O’Brien, 1908-13.
Francis Hernaman Gisborne, 1913-22.

(two Law Clerks appointed)

Joseph K. Foran, 1922-24.
Arthur Gordon Troop, 1922-36.
Paul Maurice Ollivier, 1924-51.
Arthur Angus Fraser, 1937-51.

(Return to a single Law Clerk)

Paul Maurice Ollivier (continued), 1951-71.
J.P. Joseph Maingot, 1971-82.
Marcel R. Pelletier, 1983-90.

(Position abolished 1991-1999)

Robert R. Walsh, 1999-2013.
Richard Fujarczuk, 2013-14.
Richard Denis (acting), 2014-15.
Philippe Dufresne, 2015-now.

Unlike the House, the position of Law Clerk and Parliamentary Counsel to the Senate has remained unmodified since Confederation.

The Law Clerks and Parliamentary Counsels to the Senate of Canada have been:

Edward Louis Montizambert, 1867-82.
J.G. Aylwin Creighton, 1882-1930.
William F. O’Connor, 1935-42.
John Forbes MacNeill, 1942-55.
Edward Russell Hopkins, 1956-76.
Raymond L. du Plessis, 1976-96.
Mark Audcent, 1996-2014.
Michel Patrice, 2014-now.

Better know a Canadian institution: the poultry supply mangement boards

Having looked at dairy and egg supply management boards previously, there are another two federal management boards controlling poultry markets in Canada: one for chicken, and one for turkey. So far as I can tell, the production and sale of duck, goose, pheasant, quail, partridge, squab, grouse, snipe, guinea fowl or woodcock in Canada is governed wholly by the free market.

The Canadian Chicken Marketing Agency (CCMA) was established by order of Eugene Whelan, the agriculture minister, in late 1978, and came into being in 1979. In 1998, it changed its name to  Chicken Farmers of Canada (CFC).

The chairs of CCMA/CFC have been:

Eric Alfred Meek, 1979-80.
Bruce McAninch, 1980-81.
Albert E. Hall, 1981-83.
R.W. Scott, 1983-85.
Arne Mykle, 1985-87.
Dan Lynch, 1987-89.
Laurent Mercier, 1989-91.
Waldie Klassen, 1991-94.
Lloyd Sandercock, 1994-97.
John Kolk, 1997-99.
David Fuller, 1999-2012.
Dave Janzen, 2012-now.

Four years prior, in 1974, that same Eugene Whelan, Minister of Agriculture, established the Canadian Turkey Marketing Agency (CTMA). In the 1980s, the CTMA ran a consumer outreach campaign to push turkey as an everyday food choice, publishing a number of turkey recipes with the slogan “Today’s Special: Turkey”. In 2009, the CTMA changed its name to the Turkey Farmers of Canada (TFC).

The chairs of CTMA/TFC have been:

John Tanchak, 1974.
Murray Brown, 1975.
Eugene Mailloux, 1976.
Cornelius Riediger, 1977.
Ken Crawford, 1978.
Carol Teichrob, 1979.
Eike Futter, 1980-81.
Heiko Oegema, 1982.
William Chrismas, 1983-85.
Art Roder, 1986-89.
Lorne Bustin, 1990.
Adrian de Graaf, 1991-92.
Robert Friesen, 1993-96.
John Stolp, 1997-98.
Darrell Reddekopp, 1999.
Richard Ruckhall, 2000-01.
Walter Nickel, 2002.
Brent Montgomery, 2003-06.
Mark Davies, 2007-now.

Better know a Canadian institution: the egg supply mangement boards

I’ve talked about the Canadian supply management system before – the mechanisms through which the Department of Agriculture controls the supply of certain farm products in Canada. One of those products is eggs; and Canada has not one, but two boards controlling the national egg market.

The Canadian Egg Marketing Agency (CEMA) was established in 1972. From the get-go, CEMA ran a side business of promoting eggs as a health food, starting its famous “Get Cracking” campaign in the mid-1970s. In 1996, the CEMA board of directors, which up to then had been composed solely of egg farmers, was expanded to include representatives of consumer groups and the wider poultry industry. Since 2008, CEMA has adopted the name of the Egg Farmers of Canada (EFC) as its corporate identity.

The chairs of CEMA/EFC have been:

John Hyde, 1972-74.
Phil Eldridge, 1974-75.
Leslie Worsdale, 1975.
John Hyde, 1975-76 (2nd time)(acting)
Jerry Pringle, 1976-78.
Murray McBride, 1978-79.
Harold Crossman, 1979-85.
Stan Steen, 1985-89.
Alex Craig, 1989-90.
Arthur Kenneth “Ken” Tjaden, 1990-94.
George McMillan, 1994-95 (acting)
Robert Murphy, 1995-96 (acting)
Félix Destrijker, 1996-2000.
Laurent Souligny, 2000-2011.
Peter Clarke, 2011-now.

The newest supply management board was founded as the Canadian Broiler Hatching Egg Marketing Agency (CBHEMA) in 1986. Unlike CEMA, which dealt with eggs for consumption, the CBHEMA only dealt with eggs that were intended to hatch into more chickens. It changed its name to the Canadian Hatching Egg Producers (CHEP) in 2007.

The chairs of CBHEMA/CHEP have been:

Ronald Drohomereski, 1986-93.
Vern Crawford, 1993-1995.
Ken Huttema, 1995-1996.
Martine Mercier, 1997-2001.
Ed De Jong, 2001-2007.
Gyslain Loyer, 2007-2011.
Jack Greydanus, 2011-now.

Better know a Canadian institution: the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board

The Patented Medicine Prices Review Board was created in 1987 as a function of Health Canada. Its job is to set the maximum price for patented drugs so that Big Pharma can’t screw sick people too hard.

The chairs of the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board have been:

Harry C. Eastman, 1987-95.
Robert Elgie, 1995-2005.
Réal Sureau (acting), 2005-06.
Brien Georges Benoit, 2006-10.
Mary Catherine Lindberg, 2010-now.

Better know a Canadian institution: The Canadian Polar Commission

The Canadian Polar Commission was created by act of Parliament in 1991, and is a function of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development. It is in charge of overseeing research and scientific expedition in the Arctic, coordinating international polar affairs, and the government’s public relations as they involve the Arctic.

The chairs of the Canadian Polar Commission have been:

Whitney Fraser, 1991-99.
Michael P. Robinson, 1999-2002.
Peter Graham Johnson, 2002-05.
Thomas C. Hutchinson, 2005-10.
Bernard Funston, 2010-14.
Edward G. Lennox, 2014-now.