Direct diplomatic relations between Canada and Japan began in 1929, when Canada sent an envoy to Japan and Japan opened an embassy in Ottawa. After the US and France, this was the third foreign legation opened by Canada outside of the British Commonwealth. The first Japanese ambassador to Canada was Prince Tokugawa Iemasa, the son of the direct heir to the last shogun of Japan.
Diplomatic relations between Japan and Canada were broken off right after Pearl Harbour. After World War II, Canada sent representatives to Gen. Douglas MacArthur, who was in effect ruling Japan as supreme commander of the Allied Forces occupying Japan. Thereafter, the Canadian representative became a full Ambassador in 1952. From 1964 to 1974, the Ambassador to Japan also served concurrently as the Ambassador to South Korea.
The Embassy of Canada in Japan is at 7-3-38 (i.e., building 38, block 3, chōme [sub-district] 7), Akasaka district, Minato City ward, Tokyo. In addition to the embassy in Tokyo, there are Canadian consulates in Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, and Hiroshima, as well as trade offices in Osaka, Sapporo, and Kitakyushu.
The representatives of Canada to Japan have been:
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
The Hon. Sir Herbert Meredith Marler KCMG PC (1876-1940), 1929-36. A public notary from Montreal who studied law at McGill, Marler was the Liberal MP for St.Lawrence–St. George from 1921 to 1925 and Minister Without Portfolio in the Cabinet of Mackenzie King. During his time as Canadian Minister to Japan he considered himself the envoy to the whole of the Orient, and involved himself in affairs with China. He was knighted in 1935; then, Sir Herbert was then appointed Minister to the US in 1936, retiring from ill health three years later.
The Hon. Robert Randolph Bruce (1861-1942), 1936-38. Bruce was born in Scotland and studied engineering at the University of Glasgow before coming to British Columbia in 1897 to be a prospector, starting up a lead and silver mine in the Kootenays and getting stonking rich from mining and land speculation. He was then the Lieutenant-governor of British Columbia from 1926 to 1931. He ran for Parliament as a Liberal in the 1935 general election, but lost. He was then appointed as envoy to Tokyo, where he stayed for two years before quitting and retiring to Montreal.
Edgar D’Arcy McGreer (1898-1974), 1938-41. Born in Napanee, Ont., D’Arcy McGreer served in World War I and joined the Department of External Affairs in 1927, eventually being appointed to the Tokyo legation in 1936, taking over when R.R. Bruce left in 1938. After Pearl Harbour, it was McGreer who sent the telegram to W.L. Mackenzie King informing him that Japan had declared war on Canada. McGreer was returned to Canada in 1942 in a swap of diplomatic officials, and spent the rest of the war in Ottawa. He was later High Commissioner to South Africa, envoy to Denmark, envoy to Poland, Ambassador to Israel, and Ambassador to Greece.
Head of Mission to the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers
Egerton Herbert Norman (1909-57), 1946-50. Herbert Norman was born and raised in Karuizawa, Japan, the son of Canadian Methodist missionaries. He studied at the University of Toronto and at Cambridge, then studied Japanese history at Harvard before joining the foreign service in 1939, almost immediately going to the Tokyo legation. He returned to Ottawa with D’Arcy McGreer in 1942; when the war ended in 1946, Norman was chosen to represent Canada to Douglas MacArthur’s occupying force in Japan. During his time there, Norman continued his scholarly interests in the country and wrote several works on Japanese history. By 1950 the US Department of State suspected Norman of having Communist sympathies, even possibly being a Soviet agent. He was shielded from these accusations by his longtime friend and superior, Secretary of State for External Affairs Lester Pearson. Norman was then appointed High Commissioner to New Zealand in 1953, then Ambassador to Egypt in 1956, where he was charged with organizing Canada’s role in the UN peacekeeping mission during the Suez Crisis. Unable to cope with being continuously dogged by accusations of Soviet espionage by the American government, Norman committed suicide in Cairo in April of 1957, leaping from an eighth-storey window at the Swedish embassy.
Arthur Redpath Menzies CM (1916-2010), 1950-52. Menzies was born to Canadian Presbyterian missionaries in Changde, in the Hunan province of southern China. His father, James Mellon Menzies, was a part-time archaeologist who made a study of “oracle bones”, bits of sheep bone and turtle shell etched with early examples of Chinese writing. Arthur Menzies graduated from high school in Kobe, Japan, then studied at U of T and Harvard. He joined the foreign service in 1940, soon thereafter marrying the daughter of Undersecretary for External Affairs O.D. Skelton. Menzies was in charge of the ministry’s Far Eastern department by 1945, then replaced Norman as head of mission to Tokyo in 1950. Menzies was later High Commissioner to Burma and the Malay States from 1958 to 1963 and High Commissioner to Australia from 1965 to 1972 before receiving his dream posting as Ambassador to China, serving from 1976 to 1980.
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
The Hon. Robert Wellington Mayhew PC (1880-1971), 1952-54. Born in Cobden, Ont., Mayhew moved to Victoria, B.C., as a young man and founded a prosperous roofing-supply company. He was elected the Liberal MP for Victoria from 1937 to 1952, the last four years of which time he served as Minister of Fisheries. After leaving his post in Tokyo, Mayhew retired from public life.
The Hon. Thomas Clayton Davis (1889-1960), 1954-57. Davis was born in Prince Albert, Sask., and studied at Osgoode Hall Law School. He was mayor of Prince Albert from 1921 to 1924 and a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan from 1925 to 1939, in which position he convinced the federal government to found Prince Albert National Park. He was appointed to serve as a judge of the Saskatchewan Court of Appeal from 1939 to 1948, although he did not actually serve on the bench from 1940 to 1948, as he was serving as the federal Deputy Minister of War Services from 1940 to 1943, then as High Commissioner to Australia from 1943 to 1946 and Ambassador to China from 1946 to 1949. He was then Ambassador to West Germany from 1949 to 1954 and Ambassador to Japan from 1954 to 1957; thereafter, he retired to Victoria.
William Frederick Bull (1904-?), 1957-62. Born in Weston, Ont., Fred Bull was an economic attaché to Washington during World War II. He became director of the Export Division of the Department of Trade and Commerce in 1945, then was Deputy Minister of Trade and Commerce from 1951 to 1957 before being appointed as Ambassador to Japan. Bull was later Ambassador to the Netherlands from 1963 to 1968.
Richard Plant Bower (1905-96), 1962-66. Bower was born in Kansas City, Mo., and moved to Canada to study at the University of Manitoba. He joined the foreign service in 1926 and was sent as a trade commissioner to the Netherlands. He served as Ambassador to Venezuela from 1954 to 1958 and Ambassador to Argentina from 1958 to 1962, serving concurrently as ambassador to Paraguay and Uruguay from 1961 to 1962. During his time as Ambassador to Japan, Bower was concurrently named Canada’s first Ambassador to South Korea in 1964. Bower was later Ambassador to West Germany from 1966 to 1970.
Herbert Owen Moran MBE (1908-2002), 1966-72. Herb Moran was born in Waterloo, studied at Osgoode Hall Law School and was called to the bar in Ontario in 1935. He joined the Army as an officer in 1940 and left it in 1946 with the rank of Colonel, immediately joining the foreign service. He was Ambassador to Turkey from 1952 to 1957 and High Commissioner to Pakistan from 1957 to 1960. He returned to Ottawa in 1960 and served as director-general of the External Aid Office for six years, until his posting to Tokyo in 1966. Moran retired from public service in 1972.
Ross Campbell OC DSC (1918-2007), 1972-75. Campbell studied law at U of T and served in the Navy in World War II, earning the Distinguished Service Cross, and retired as a lieutenant-commander. He joined External Affairs shortly after the war and was appointed as Ambassador to Yugoslavia from 1964 to 1967; he was concurrently appointed as Canada’s first Ambassador to Algeria in 1965. From 1967 to 1972 Campbell was Ambassador to NATO. Campbell left the diplomatic service after finishing his posting in Tokyo in 1975; he then served as Chairman of Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. From 1975 to 1980.
Bruce Irving Rankin OC (1918-86), 1976-81. Rankin was born in Brandon, Man., and studied at the University of Alberta. He served in the Navy in World War II, retiring as a lieutenant-commander. He joined the diplomatic corps in 1945 and was posted as a commercial secretary in Shanghai, fleeing aboard a British vessel breaking the Nationalist blockade of the port when the Communists took the city in 1949. He then served in various posts until serving as ambassador to Venezuela and the Dominican Republic from 1964 to 1970 and Consul-General in New York City from 1970 to 1976 before his appointment as Ambassador to Japan.
Ian Barry Connell Steers (1927-2011), 1981-89. Barry Steers was born in London, Ont., and studied at UWO. He joined the Trade Commissioner Service in 1956 and eventually became a diplomat, serving as Ambassador to Brazil from 1971 to 1976, then as the first Canadian Commissioner to Bermuda from 1976 to 1979. Steers retired to the private sector in 1990, drawing from a decade of experience in dealings with Japan, and was the first director of the Canadian Japan Society.
James Hutchings Taylor (1930-now), 1989-92. “Si” Taylor grew up in Hamilton and went to McMaster, then to Oxford on a Rhodes scholarship. He joined the diplomatic corps in 1953, serving as Ambassador to NATO from 1982 to 1985 and Undersecretary of State for External Affairs from 1985 to 1989. Taylor was later chancellor of McMaster University from 1992 to 1998.
Donald Wilfred Campbell (1940-now), 1993-97. Born in Drayton, Ont., Campbell attended the University of Waterloo and thereafter joined the diplomatic corps. He was Ambassador to South Korea from 1984 to 1985, and spent some time in charge of relations with the United States before being appointed as Deputy Minister of International Trade from 1989 to 1993. Returning from Japan in 1997, Campbell was made Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs until retiring to the private sector in 2000.
Leonard J. Edwards, 1997-2001. Len Edwards was born in Melfort, Sask., and joined the civil service in 1969. Edwards was Ambassador to South Korea from 1991 to 1994. After leaving Tokyo, Edwards was Deputy Minister of International Trade from 2001 to 2004, Deputy Minister of Agriculture from 2004 to 2007, and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2007 to 2010. His daughter is the singer-songwriter Kathleen Edwards.
Robert G. Wright, 2001-05. Robert Wright went to McGill and joined the civil service in 1971; he served in various diplomatic and economic posts until his appointment as Deputy Minister of International Trade in 1995, then as Ambassador to Japan in 2001. He went on to serve as Ambassador to China from 2005 to 2009. His brothers, James Wright and David Wright, were also high-ranking Canadian diplomats.
Joseph Caron, 2005-08. Caron attended the University of Ottawa and joined the Trade Commissioner Service in 1972, serving in Saigon and Ankara before a long assignment in Tokyo. He spent most of the 1980s in private-sector dealings in the Far East, before working in Ottawa for the Department of Foreign Affairs in the 1990s, eventually serving as Ambassador to China from 2001 to 2005.
Jonathan T. Fried, 2008-12. Fried went to U of T and Columbia University. He was principal counsel to the Canadian government for NAFTA negotiations from 1991 to 1993, and served as chair of the OAS in 1996. Fried has been Canada’s Ambassador to the WTO since 2012.
Mackenzie Clugston (1950-now), 2012-now. Clugston was born in Kobe, Japan. He went to Trent and Queen’s and joined the foreign service in 1982, and was a diplomat in Japan from 1985 to 2009, then was Ambassador to Indonesia from 2009 to 2012.
In 1941, Canada established a diplomatic mission to Newfoundland to co-ordinate the war effort. The mission in St. John’s was closed when Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949.
The Canadian High Commissioners to Newfoundland were:
The Hon. Charles Jost Burchell PC (1st time), 1941-44.
James Scott Macdonald, 1944-48.
Paul Augustus Bridle, 1948.
The Hon. Charles Jost Burchell PC (2nd time), 1948-49.
The Dominion of Newfoundland had, like every other British Dominion, had a High Commissioner to London, starting in 1918. It stopped in 1934, when Britain started talking directly to the Commission of Government.
The Newfoundland High Commissioners to the UK were:
Sir Edgar Rennie Bowring KCMG (1st time), 1918-22.
Lt.-Col. Thomas Nangle CF, 1923-24.
Capt. Victor Gordon CMG MC, 1924-28.
Sir John R. Bennett KBE, 1928.
Daniel James Davies CBE, 1928-32.
Sir Edgar Rennie Bowring KCMG (2nd time), 1933-34.
In 1926 former British Prime Minister Arthur “The Great Declarator” Balfour, who was at the time the 1st Earl Balfour and Lord President of the Council under Stanley Baldwin, published the Balfour Declaration of 1926, which decided that the UK government and the Dominion governments were separate, and that, among other things, Dominion governors general represented the Crown and not the British government in their countries, and that the Dominions had the right to conduct foreign relations independent of the British diplomatic system. Canada first took advantage of this rule in 1927, when the US government recognized Canada’s Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States. The Minister was upgraded to a full Ambassador in 1943.
The Canadian Embassy to the United States is at 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC, next to the Newseum (the News Museum) and across the street from the National Art Gallery. It is also the closest embassy of any country to the US Capitol, which is 600 yards down the street from the Embassy. The Ambassador lives in a mansion at 2425 Rock Creek Drive, Washington DC. In addition to the Embassy, Canada also has general consulates in New York City, Boston, Detroit, Chicago, Minneapolis, Atlanta, Miami, Dallas, Denver, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, and special trade consulates in Houston, San Diego and Palo Alto.
The Ministers and Ambassadors of Canada to the United States have been:
The Rt. Hon. Charles Vincent Massey PC CH CC CD (1887-1967), 1927-30. Scion of the wealthy Massey family of farm equipment fame (almost any old-timer’s farm in Canada will have a Massey-Harris or Massey-Ferguson tractor), grandson of Hart Massey (who built Massey Hall in Toronto), and brother of Oscar-nominated actor Raymond Massey, Vincent Massey attended the University of Toronto and Oxford, then was appointed Dean of Men at Burwash Hall, U of T, where he lectured in history. He then married Anna Parkin, daughter of the Principal of Upper Canada College, thus becoming by marriage the uncle of the political philosopher George Grant and great-uncle of former Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff. Massey ran for the seat of Durham County in the 1925 federal election as a Liberal and lost. He was then Canada’s first official Envoy to the United States from 1927 to 1930, making him the first Canadian to have diplomatic immunities. Massey was thereafter President of the National Liberal Federation of Canada before being sent to London as High Commissioner to the UK from 1935 to 1946. After World War II Massey chaired the Massey Commission into the state of the arts and humanities in Canada, then became the first Canadian-born Governor-General of Canada, serving from 1952 to 1959.
Humphrey Hume Wrong (1st time) (1894-1954), 1930-31 (acting)
The Hon. Maj. William Duncan Herridge PC KC MC DSO (1887-1961), 1931–1935. Born in Ottawa, Herridge went to Osgoode Hall Law School, served as an officer in World War I and was a close personal friend of Governor-General Lord Byng, whose treatment by the Liberal government in the King-Byng affair of 1926 made him leave the Liberal Party and join the Conservatives, where he was very loyal to R.B. Bennett, his brother-in-law. Herridge was largely shunned by the Tories after Bennett’s exit as leader in 1938 and thereafter founded the New Democracy Party, which ran candidates jointly with the Social Credit Party in the election of 1940. The new party failed to elect a single member, and Herridge went back to his career as a patent attorney.
Humphrey Hume Wrong (2nd time) (1894-1954), 1935-36 (acting)
The Hon. Sir Herbert Meredith Marler KCMG PC (1876-1940), 1936–39. A public notary from Montreal who went to McGill, Marler was the Liberal MP for St.Lawrence–St. George from 1921 to 1925 and Minister Without Portfolio in the Cabinet of Mackenzie King. He was Canadian Minister to Japan from 1929 to 1936, during which time he was knighted. Sir Herbert was then appointed Minister to the US, retiring from ill health three years later.
Loring Cheney Christie (1885-1941), 1939–41. Born in Amherst, NS, Christie went to Acadia U and Harvard, then became a legal advisor to the Department of External Affairs in 1913 and was a key advsor to Sir Robert Borden during World War I. He retired from the civil service in 1923 and worked in the private sector until rejoining in 1935, serving as Minister to the US from 1939 until his death 2 years later.
The Hon. Leighton Goldie McCarthy PC (1869-1952), 1941–44. McCarthy’s father, Dalton McCarthy, was the leader and sole elected representative of a virulently anti-French and anti-Catholic political group in Ontario called the McCarthyites. Although the party dissolved when Dalton McCarthy was killed in a carriage accident in 1898, Leighton ran for his father’s vacant seat in a by-election, and won. He sat as an independent MP for Simcoe North from 1898 to 1908; he ran again as a Liberal in 1911, but lost. McCarthy was later President of Canada Life Assurance, and became the first Ambassador to the US in 1943.
The Rt. Hon. Lester Bowles Pearson OM CC OBE PC (1897-1972), 1944–46. “Mike” Pearson, son of a Methodist pastor, went to U of T, then served as an ambulance driver in World War I before signing up to fly fighter planes, although before he could fly a mission he was hit by a bus in London and was in the hospital until the war was over. Pearson then went to Oxford, taught history at U of T, and played semipro baseball in Guelph before joining the foreign service, and was second-in-command at the Canadian High Commission in London from 1939 to 1942 and a counselor at the US embassy from 1942 to 1944, when he became Ambassador. He returned to Ottawa in 1946 to serve as deputy minister of External Affairs. Pearson was then appointed as Secretary of State for External Affairs by Louis Saint-Laurent in 1948, and Pearson was the Liberal MP for Algoma East from 1949 to 1968. Pearson was also Canada’s representative at the UN and was President of the General Assembly of the UN in 1956, where he came up with the idea to form an international peacekeeping force to ease tensions between Egypt, France and the UK over control of the Suez Canal, for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957. He was later Leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 1958 to 1968 and Prime Minister from 1963 to 1968.
Humphrey Hume Wrong (3rd time) (1894-1954), 1946–53. Born in Toronto, Hume Wrong went to U of T, served the Army in the World War I, then went to Oxford, came back to Canada and taught history at U of T. Wrong was hired on as first secretary to the Canadian legation in DC when it opened in 1927 and briefly served twice as interim minister before being appointed Ambassador in 1946, where he was a key architect of the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949, which started NATO. He was appointed deputy minister for External Affairs in 1953, but died shortly thereafter.
The Hon. Arnold Danford Patrick Heeney CC PC (1st time) (1902-70), 1953–57. Born in Montreal, Arnold Heeney went to the University of Manitoba, McGill and Oxford (on a Rhodes scholarship) before practicing law in Montreal. He was Clerk of the Privy Council from 1940 to 1949 and Undersecretary of State for External Affairs from 1949 to 1953.
Norman Alexander Robertson CC (1904-68), 1957–58. Born in Vancouver, Robertson went to Oxford on a Rhodes scholarship. He joined the Department of External Affairs in 1929 and became friends with Lester Pearson and Hume Wrong. During World War II, he served as deputy minister of External Affairs, then was High Commissioner to the UK for three years starting in 1946. He returned to Ottawa to be Clerk of the Privy Council from 1949 to 1952, and then was High Commissioner to London again from 1952 to 1957, where he was a standard-bearer at the coronation of Elizabeth II. He served again as deputy minister of External Affairs from 1958 to 1964.
The Hon. Arnold Danford Patrick Heeney CC PC (2nd time) (1902-70), 1959-62. After two years as chair of the Civil Service Commission, Heeney returned as Ambassador, retiring in 1962. He died in Ottawa eight years later.
Charles Stewart Almon Ritchie CC (1906-95), 1962-66. Born into a rich family in Halifax, Ritchie, whose brother Roland would eventually become a Justice of the Supreme Court, went to the University of King’s College, Oxford, Harvard and the École Libre des Sciences Politiques before becoming a diplomat. He was Ambassador to West Germany and the UN, before being appointed Ambassador to the US, and was later Ambassador to NATO and High Commissioner to the UK. He also had a long intermittent affair with the Irish author Elizabeth Bowen.
Albert Edgar Ritchie CC (1916-2002), 1966-70. Edgar Ritchie was born in Andover, NB, went to Mount Allsion University, won a Rhodes scholarship and went to Oxford. He joined External Affairs in 1944 and spent 22 years in senior positions in Ottawa before being sent to DC. He was later Undersecretary of State for External Affairs from 1970 to 1974 and Ambassador to Ireland from 1976 to 1980.
Marcel Cadieux CC (1915-81), 1970-75. Born in Montreal, Cadieux went to U de Montréal and McGill and was an expert in international law for the Department of External Affairs, a subject he also taught at the University of Ottawa.
Jack Hamilton Warren OC (1921-2008), 1975-77. Warren served in the Navy in World War II and was Deputy Minister of Trade and Commerce, then High Commissioner to the UK from 1971 to 1974. He would later become a director of the Bank of Montreal.
Peter Milburn Towe OC (1922-now), 1977–1981. Towe was born in London, went to the University of Western Ontario and Queen’s, and served in the RCAF in World War II. He was a longtime employee of External Affairs, and had been Canada’s representative to the OECD.
Allan Ezra Gotlieb CC OM (Man.) (1928-now), 1981–1989. A Winnipeg-born Rhodes Scholar, Gotlieb studied at Oxford, UC Berkeley, and Harvard. He joined the civil service and was deputy minister of the Department of Communications, deputy minister of Manpower and Immigration, and Undersecretary of External Affairs. As Ambassador he was key in negotiating NAFTA and coined its nickname, “the Grand Bargain”. He collected the paintings of James Tissot, which he donated to the Art Gallery of Ontario. He was later chair of the Canada Council and publisher of Saturday Night magazine. His wife Sondra, a writer, threw grand parties in DC and was once caught slapping her social secretary.
Derek Hudson Burney OC (1939-now), 1989–1993. Born in Thunder Bay and a grad of Queen’s, Burney was Ambassador to South Korea, then was Chief of Staff to Brian Mulroney from 1987 to 1989. After returning from DC he was CEO of Bell Canada.
Gen. Alfred John Gardyne Drummond de Chastelain CC CMM CD CH (1937-now), 1993–1994. John de Chastelain was born in Bucharest to a Scottish father and American mother and immigrated to Canada in 1954. He enrolled in the Royal Military College and was commissioned in the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry. He served in Cyprus, was Commandant of the Royal Military College, and Chief of the Defence Staff from 1989 to 1993 and 1994 to 1995. After his retirement Gen. de Chastelain got very involved in peace negotiations in Northern Ireland, and from 1997 to 2011 chaired an international commission to disarm Irish paramilitary groups.
Raymond Chrétien OC (1942-now), 1994–2000. The nephew of Jean Chrétien, Raymond Chrétien went to U de Laval and became a lawyer before joining External Affairs, and was ambassador to Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Zaire, Mexico, Guatemala, Belgium, and Luxembourg before coming to DC. He was later the Ambassador to France.
Michael Kergin (1942-now), 2000–2005. Kergin went to U of T and Oxford and was a career diplomat, having previously been Ambassador to Cuba. He is now a fellow of the University of Ottawa.
The Hon. Francis Joseph McKenna OC PC ONB QC (1948-now), 2005-2006. Frank McKenna was born in Apohaqui, NB, and went to St. Francis Xavier University, Queen’s U and University of New Brunswick. He was Liberal MLA for Chatham from 1982 to 1997 and was elected Premier of New Brunswick in 1987 unanimously, the Liberals winning all 58 seats in the New Brunswick legislature, and served as premier exactly 10 years.
The Hon. Michael Holcombe Wilson CC PC (1937-now), 2006-2009. A hotshot Bay Street investment banker, Wilson was Progressive Conservative MP for Etobicoke Centre from 1979 to 1993 and was Minister of State for International Trade under Joe Clark and Minister of Finance, Minister of Industry, Science and Technology and Minister of International Trade under Brian Mulroney. He is currently the Chancellor of the University of Toronto.
Gary Albert Doer OM (Man.) (1948-now), 2009-now. After studying sociology at the University of Manitoba, Doer was a prison guard, then was president of the Manitoba Government Employees’ Association in 1979 to 1986. He was New Democrat MLA for Concordia from 1986 to 2009 and was Minister of Urban Affairs and Minister of Crown Investments under premier Howard Pawley. Doer was then Leader of the Manitoba NDP from 1988 to 2009 and Premier of Manitoba from 1999 to 2009, resigning to accept the ambassadorship.
Canada’s first proper foreign representative was started in 1882, when the federal government established an Agent-General to France, at the behest of the Quebec upper crust. The Agent-General was made an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in 1928 and lasted until Canada broke off ties to Vichy France in 1942. It re-established contact as a full Ambassador after the liberation of Paris in 1944.
The Canadian Embassy in France is at 35 avenue de Montaigne in the 8th Arrondissement of Paris. The Ambassador resides nearby at 135 rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. There are also Canadian consulates in Lille, Lyon, Toulouse, Nice and the City of Monaco. The Ambassador to France is also the Ambassador to Andorra and the Ambassador to Monaco.
The representatives of Canada to France have been:
Louis-Roch-Hector Fabre (1834-1910), 1882-1910. Fabre was a Montreal lawyer and journalist whose father was a newsagent and bookseller, at whose store the young Fabre would listen to such important customers as Papineau, Lafontaine and Viger as they sat and discussed the issues of the day. Fabre later sat as a Liberal senator from 1875 to 1882. Fabre was initially appointed to act as agent-general for the province of Quebec, but was given a federal mandate later in the year of his appointment, and held both posts until his death. The British ambassador to France at the time, the Viscount Lyons, was resentful of Fabre, but Fabre was on good terms with the Canadian High Commissioner to Britain, Sir Alexander Galt, and Galt’s successor, Sir Charles Tupper, who was the only other Canadian foreign representative at the time.
The Hon. Philippe Roy PC (1868-1948), 1911-38. Born in Quebec, Roy trained as a doctor and moved to Edmonton in 1897. He was a Liberal senator from 1906 to 1911 before becoming Agent to France. When Canada opened the French Legation in 1928, Roy became the second Canadian to get diplomatic privilege, after US minister Vincent Massey got it the year before.
The Rt. Hon. Maj.-Gen. Georges-Philéas Vanier PC DSO MC CD (1888-1967), 1939-41, 1944-53. Vanier was born in Montreal and got a law degree before signing up as an officer in the Royal 22e Régiment in World War I, where he lost a leg at Chérisy in 1918. Vanier was then aide de camp to Governors-General Lord Byng and Lord Willingdon for most of the 1920s, except between 1925 and 1926 when he was in command of the Royal 22e. He was secretary to the Canadian High Commission in London from 1930 to 1939, when he became Minister to France. Vanier fled Paris after the fall of France in 1940, and resigned in disgust as Minister in 1941 over the actions of the Vichy regime. He returned to Canada to briefly command the Army in Quebec before returning to Europe and acting as the representative to the Free French under De Gaulle, as well as the governments-in-exile of the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Greece and Yugoslavia. Vanier became Canada’s first Ambassador to France in 1944 and served until 1953, during which time he and his wife Pauline helped thousands of refugees immigrate to Canada. Vanier retired briefly from public life to pursue business interests for six years, then was Governor-General from 1959 to his death in 1967.
Jean Désy (1893-1960), 1954-57. A graduate of Laval and the Sorbonne, Désy was a career diplomat, and had already been Minister to the Netherlands and Belgium, and ambassador to Brazil and Italy.
Pierre Dupuy CC (1896-1969), 1958-63. Dupuy went to U de Montréal and the Sorbonne and joined the foreign service, acting as secretary to the Canadian legation from 1928 onward. Dupuy stayed in France after its fall and acted as chargé d’affaires in Vanier’s absence; since Britain severed its diplomatic ties to France after 1940, Dupuy provided vital information to the Allies on the political situation in Vichy France before Canada finally withdrew diplomatic relations in November 1942, Dupuy returning to London to serve under Vanier. Dupuy returned to the Continent in 1944 with the Belgian government-in-exile and became Minister to the Netherlands in 1945 and Ambassador to Italy in 1952 before becoming Ambassador to France, where he served until his retirement. From 1963 to 1968, Dupuy was Commissioner General of the 1967 International and Universal Exposition (Expo 67) in Montreal.
The Rt. Hon. Jules Léger PC CC CMM CD (1913-80), 1964-68. Léger went to U de Montréal and the Sorbonne, taught diplomatic history at the University of Ottawa, and joined the foreign service, becoming Ambassador to Mexico in 1953, then served as deputy minister of External Affairs, Representative to NATO and Ambassador to Italy before becoming Ambassador to France. He returned to Canada and served as deputy minister to the Secretary of State for Canada for four years before being appointed Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg, a posting cut short when he was appointed Governor-General in 1974, and was the first GG to eschew the traditional Windsor uniform. Six months into his term, however, Léger suffered a stroke which left him enfeebled, causing his wife, Gabrielle, to help him in many of his duties. He died in November 1980, 22 months after leaving office.
Joseph Eximer Paul André Beaulieu (1913-2007), 1968-70. Born in Outremont and trained as a lawyer, Paul Beaulieu served in the Department of External Affairs from 1942 to 1977. Before coming to Paris he had been ambassador to Lebanon, Iraq, Brazil, and the UN, and afterward served as Ambassador to Portugal.
The Hon. Joseph Alphonse Léo Cadieux PC OC (1908-2005), 1970-75. A journalist from Saint-Jerôme, Léo Cadieux was the Liberal MP for Terrebonne from 1962 to 1968 and for Labelle from 1968 to 1970. He was Associate Defence Minister from 1965 to 1967 ad Minister of National Defence from 1967 to 1970.
The Hon. Gérard Pelletier PC CC (1919-97), 1975-81. Pelletier began his journalism career writing for Le Devoir before becoming Editor-in-Chief of La Presse in 1961. He was Liberal MP for Hochelaga from 1965 to 1975, and was Secretary of State for Canada and Minister of Communications under Trudeau. He was later Ambassador to the UN from 1981 to 1984.
The Hon. Michel Dupuy PC (1930-now), 1981-85. Born in Paris, Dupuy was a diplomat and had earlier been Ambassador to the UN. Later he was the Liberal MP for Laval West from 1993 and 1996 and was both Minister of Communications and Minister of Citizenship and Multiculturalism under Chrétien, during which time they were merged to form the Department of Canadian Heritage.
The Hon. Lucien Bouchard PC GOQ (1938-now), 1985-88. Bouchard was born near Alma and was a lawyer and public servant before being appointed as Ambassador. He was then the Progressive Conservative MP for Lac-Saint-Jean from 1988 to 1990 and was Secretary of State for Canada and Minister of the Environment under Mulroney before leaving to found the Bloc Quebecois, which he led until 1996, during which time he campaigned for Quebec separatism in the 1995 referendum and lost a leg to a flesh-eating disease. He was thereafter PQ premier of Quebec from 1996 until his retirement in 2001.
Claude Talbot Charland (1934-93), 1988-93. Charland was a career diplomat and was ambassador to Guatemala, Mexico, Italy and Libya before being sent to Paris, where he died of cancer.
The Hon. Benoît Bouchard CM PC (1940-2014), 1993-96. Bouchard was the Progressive Conservative MP for Roberval from 1984 to 1983 and was Minister of State for Transport, Secretary of State for Canada, Minister of Employment and Immigration, Minister of Transport, Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, and Minister of National Health and Welfare under Mulroney. He was later Chair of the Transportation Safety Board.
Jacques Silva Roy, 1996-2000. Roy, a career diplomat, Roy was ambassador to Yemen, Somalia, Oman, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland, and retired after leaving France.
Raymond Chrétien OC (1942-now), 2000-03. The nephew of Jean Chrétien, Raymond Chrétien went to U de Laval and became a lawyer before joining External Affairs, and was ambassador to Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Zaire, Mexico, Guatemala, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the US before coming to France.
Claude Laverdure, 2003-07. A career diplomat, Laverdure was also ambassador to Belgium, Luxembourg, Congo, Burundi, Rwanda, Zaire and Haiti.
Marc Robert Lortie (1948-now), 2007-12. A career diplomat, Lortie was also ambassador to Chile, Paraguay and Spain.
The Hon. Lawrence Cannon PC (1947-now), 2012-now. Grandson of Liberal Cabinet ministers Lucien Cannon and Charles Power and great-grandson of Supreme Court chief justice Sir Charles Fitzpatrick, Cannon was Liberal MNA for La Peltrie from 1985 to 1994 and Minister of Communications from 1990 to 1994 under Robert Bourassa. Cannon was then the Conservative MP for Pontiac from 2006 to 2011, and was Minister of Transport and Infrastructure and Minister of Foreign Affairs under Harper.
The position of High Commissioner to the United Kingdom was instituted in 1880 so that the Canadian government had representation in London. It was a strange point in Canadian external relations; Canada was no longer entirely a colony, so some diplomatic channel to the UK was needed, but it wasn’t an independent country, so Canada couldn’t exactly send an ambassador. Since Canada was the first member of the Empire in this position, it set the standard; now, the ambassadors between all the countries of the Commonwealth are called “High Commissioner”.
The High Commission of Canada is at Canada House, Trafalgar Square, Westminster. There are also honorary consulates in Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast. From 1961 to 2013 the High Commissioner had a separate residence at Macdonald House, 1 Grosvenor Square, Mayfair, but it has since been sold to an Indian tycoon.
The High Commissioners of Canada to the United Kingdom have been:
The Hon. Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt GCMG PC (1817-93), 1880-83. Born in London, the son of the Scottish novelist John Galt, Galt was an influential member of the legislature of the Province of Canada and was one of the Fathers of Confederation, sitting as the Conservative MP for Sherbrooke from 1867 to 1872 and serving as Canada’s first Minister of Finance from July to November of 1867. After leaving London he pursued business ventures in the Canadian West, and co-founded with his son Elliott the city of Lethbridge, AB.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Tupper GCMG CB PC MD, Bt. (1821-1915), 1883-96. Born in Amherst, NS, Tupper earned a degree in medicine from the University of Edinburgh. He became a key figure among the Fathers of confederation as premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867. He was then MP for Cumberland County from 1867 to 1884, and served in the cabinet of Sir John A. Macdonald. After serving as High Commissioner, he returned to Canada to become leader of the Conservative Party, becoming Prime Minister for 69 days in 1896 – Canada’s shortest-serving prime minister. He was then MP for Cape Breton and Leader of the Opposition from 1896 to 1900 and was the longest-lived Father of Confederation, dying in 1915 at the age of 94. Tupper’s son, Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper, was Fisheries minister under Macdonald, Abbott and Thompson, Justice minister under Bowell, and Solicitor-General under his father; another son, William Johnston Tupper, was Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba.
The Rt. Hon. Sir Donald Alexander Smith GCMG GCVO PC DL, 1st Baron Strathcona and Mount Royal (1820-1914), 1896-1914. Born in Moray, Scotland, Smith moved to Montreal at 18 to clerk for the Hudson’s Bay Company. He was made Chief Factor of the District of Labrador in 1862, Commissioner of the Montreal Department in 1868, and President of the Council of the Northern Department in 1870. After being sent to negotiate with Louis Riel in the Red River Rebellion of 1869, Smith was elected to the assembly of Manitoba in 1870, the House of Commons in 1871, and the Council of the Northwest Territories in 1872, holding all three simultaneously until resigning from the Manitoba legislature in 1874. Smith was defeated in re-election to Parliament in 1880 and became one of the founding directors of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and personally drove in the last spike of the transcontinental line at Craigellachie, BC, in 1885. He was Governor of the HBC from 1889 to his death in 1914; he was the company’s longest-serving employee, as his career there lasted 75 years.
The Rt. Hon. Sir George Halsey Perley KCMG PC (1857-1938), 1914-22. Born in Lebanon, NH, he moved as a child to the Ottawa Valley, where his father, William Goodhue Perley, became a lumber baron and Conservative MP. George Perley followed his father into the lumber business and became a big wheel in Ottawa society, donating a million dollars in relief of the Ottawa-Hull Fire of 1900. He was the Conservative MP for Argenteuil County from 1904 to 1917 and served as Minister of Overseas Military Forces in the cabinet of Sir Robert Borden. After returning from London, Sir George served again as MP for Argenteuil County from 1925 to 1938, and was Secretary of State for Canada in the brief 1926 government of Arthur Meighen, and as Minister Without Portfolio in the cabinet of R.B. Bennett.
The Hon. Peter Charles Larkin PC (1855-1930), 1922-30. Born in Montreal, Larkin made his fortune in the import of exotic foodstuffs, and founded the Salada Tea Company, which was the first tea merchant to seal tea in foil to preserve its freshness. In 1899 he joined a consortium of wealthy men, including department store magnate Timothy Eaton, Postmaster-General Sir William Mulock and Sen. George Cox, in buying a controlling share of the Toronto Star in order to install Joseph E. Atkinson as its Editor-in-Chief. Larkin was a friend and patron of W.L. Mackenzie King, and paid for the refurbishment of Laurier House, King’s Ottawa residence; King, in turn, made Larkin a Privy Councillor and appointed him High Commissioner. While in London, Larkin moved the High Commission from some scattered offices in Victoria Street, Westminster, to Canada House, which had been two buildings housing the Union Club and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons.
Lucien Turcotte Pacaud (1879-1960), 1930 (acting)
The Hon. George Howard Ferguson PC (1870-1946), 1930-35. Son of Conservative MP Charles Frederick Ferguson, Howard Ferguson was born in Kemptville, ON, went to Osgoode Hall Law School, and was Conservative premier of Ontario from 1923 to 1930. Before his death he was was briefly Chancellor of the University of Western Ontario.
The Rt. Hon. Charles Vincent Massey PC CH CC CD (1887-1967), 1935-46. Scion of the wealthy Massey family of farm equipment fame (almost any old-timer’s farm in Canada will have a Massey-Harris or Massey-Ferguson tractor), grandson of Hart Massey (who built Massey Hall in Toronto), and brother of actor Raymond Massey, Vincent Massey attended the University of Toronto and Oxford, then was appointed Dean of Men at Burwash Hall, U of T, where he lectured in history. He then married Anna Parkin, daughter of the Principal of Upper Canada College, thus becoming by marriage the uncle of the political philosopher George Grant and great-uncle of Michael Ignatieff. Massey ran for the set of Durham County in the 1925 election as a Liberal and lost. He was then Canada’s first official Envoy to the United States from 1927 to 1930, then was President of the National Liberal Federation of Canada before being sent to London. He was High Commissioner during the Abdication Crisis, the coronation of George VI and World War II, where his secretaries included Georges Vanier and Lester Pearson. After the War Massey chaired the Massey Commission into the state of the arts and humanities in Canada, then became the first Canadian-born Governor-General of Canada, serving from 1952 to 1959.
Norman Alexander Robertson CC (1st time) (1904-68), 1946-49. Born in Vancouver, Robertson went to Oxford on a Rhodes scholarship. He joined the Department of External Affairs in 1929 and became friends with Lester Pearson and Hume Wrong. During World War II, he served as deputy minister of External Affairs.
Leolyn Dana Wilgress CC (1892-1969), 1949-52. Born in Vancouver and educated at McGill, Dana Wilgress was a career diplomat. Besides serving as High Commissioner, he was also Ambassador to the USSR, deputy minister of External Affairs, and Representative to NATO and the OECD.
Norman Alexander Robertson CC (2nd time) (1904-68), 1952-57. Robertson, who was Clerk of the Privy Council from 1949 to 1952, was High Commissioner during the coronation of Elizabeth II, where he was a standard-bearer. He later served as Ambassador to the US.
The Hon. George Alexander Drew PC CC QC (1894-1973), 1957-64. George Drew went to Osgoode Hall Law School and married the daughter of an opera singer who was general manager of the Met in New York. Drew was then Mayor of Guelph from 1925 to 1929, chairman of the Ontario Securities Commission from 1931 to 1934, leader of the Conservative Party of Ontario from 1936 to 1948, premier of Ontario from 1943 to 1948 and the Leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1948 to 1956, during which time he was Leader of the Opposition; he was also the MP for Carleton County from 1949 to 1957. After his time as High Commissioner, he was the first Chancellor of the University of Guelph.
The Hon. Lionel Chevrier PC CC QC (1903-87), 1964-67. A graduate of Osgoode Hall, Chevrier was Liberal MP for Stormont County from 1935 to 1954, President of the St. Lawrence Seaway Authority from 1954 to 1957, and Liberal MP for Laurier from 1957 to 1964. Chevrier was also Minister of Transport from 1945 to 1954, Opposition House Leader under Diefenbaker, and Minister of Justice from 1963 to 1964.
Charles Stewart Almon Ritchie CC (1906-95), 1967-71. Born into a rich family in Halifax, Ritchie, whose brother Roland would eventually become a Justice of the Supreme Court, went to the University of King’s College, Oxford, Harvard and the École Libre des Sciences Politiques before becoming a diplomat. He was Ambassador to West Germany, the UN, the US and NATO before being appointed High Commissioner. He also had a long intermittent affair with the Irish author Elizabeth Bowen.
Jack Hamilton Warren OC (1921-2008), 1971-74. Warren served in the Navy in World War II and was Deputy Minister of Trade and Commerce. He would later become Ambassador to the US, then a director of the Bank of Montreal.
The Rt. Hon. Joseph James Guillaume Paul Martin PC CC QC (1903-92), 1974-79. Born in Ottawa and raised in Pembroke, ON, Paul Martin survived polio as a child and graduated from Osgoode Hall. He was Liberal MP for Essex East from 1935 to 1968, and was Secretary of State for Canada under King, Minister of Health and Welfare under King and Saint-Laurent and Secretary of State for External Affairs under Pearson. He ran for leadership of the Liberal Party in 1958, placing second, and in 1968, placing fourth on the first ballot and dropping out. (Martin was also nominated in the 1948 leadership convention, but withdrew before voting began to throw his support to Louis Saint-Laurent. This was actually a ploy by Mackenzie King to ensure that Saint-Laurent would win; the same thing was done by Minister of Finance Douglas Abbott, Minister of Trade and Commerce C.D. Howe, Minister of Transport Lionel Chevrier, and Manitoba premier Stuart Garson.) Martin was appointed to the Senate from 1968 to 1974, and was Leader of the Government in the Senate under Trudeau. After he left London, Martin taught political science at the University of Windsor. His son, Paul Martin Jr., was Minister of Finance under Jean Chrétien and Prime Minister from 2003 to 2006.
Jean Casselman Wadds OC (1920-2011), 1980-83. Born Jean Rowe near Bradford, ON, Jean married Grenville–Dundas MP A.C. Casselman in 1946. He died in 1958, and so Jean Casselman ran for the vacant seat as a Progressive Conservative, and won it. Her father, William Earl Rowe, was at the same time the MP for Dufferin–Simcoe, making them the only father-daughter team in Parliamentary history. Casselman became the first female parliamentary secretary in 1962, serving under Minister of Health and Welfare Jay Waldo Monteith. Casselman remarried to a Toronto stockbroker, Robert Wadds, and served in Parliament until 1968. The first female High Commissioner to the UK, she played a key role in the repatriation of the Constitution in 1982.
The Hon. Donald Campbell Jamieson PC (1921-86), 1983-85. Born in St. John’s, NL, Jamieson was a beloved broadcasting personality and the first Newfoundlander in the parliamentary press gallery in 1945, despite opposing Newfoundland joining Confederation, preferring instead political indepedence with economic union with the US. He founded the first TV station in Newfoundland, CJON-TV (now NTV Superstation) and was president of the Canadian Association of Broadcasters. Jamieson was the Liberal MP for Burin-Burgeo from 1966 to 1979 and served in the Trudeau cabinet as Minister of Defence Production (1968-69), Minister of Transport (1969-72), Minister of Regional Economic Expansion (1972-76) and Secretary of State for External Affairs (1976-79).
Roland McMurtry OC Oont (1932-now), 1985-88. Born in Toronto and a grad of Osgoode Hall, “Roy” McMurtry took landscape painting lessons from Group of Seven painter A.J. Casson and was a close friend of Ontario premier William Davis and was the PC MPP for Eglinton from 1975 to 1985, during which time he was also Attorney-General of Ontario He ran for the provincial PC leadership in 1985, finishing fourth. After being High Commissioner, McMurtry was the Commissioner of the CFL, then was appointed to the Superior Court of Ontario in 1991, and was Chief Justice of Ontario from 1996 to 2007.
The Hon. Donald Stovel Macdonald PC CC (1932-now), 1988-91. Born in Ottawa, Macdonald went to U of T, Harvard and Cambridge. He was Liberal MP for Rosedale from 1962 to 1977, serving as President of the Privy Council, Minister of National Defence, Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources and Minister of Finance under Trudeau. Macdonald chaired a Royal Commission in 1982 which recommended free trade with the US, which was the beginning of NAFTA.
Fredrik Stefan Eaton OC Oont (1938-now), 1991-94. Scion of the Eaton department store family, Fred Eaton attended UNB and was CEO of Eaton’s from 1977 to 1988.
Royce Herbert Frith CM QC (1923-2005), 1994-96. Born in Lachine and educated at Osgoode Hall, Roy Frith was a legal advisor to the Commissioner of Official Languages and was a Liberal senator from 1977 to 1994. He was later a member of the Board of Trustees of the National Arts Centre.
The Hon. Roy MacLaren PC (1934-now), 1996-2000. Born in Vancouver, MacLaren went to UBC, U of T and Cambridge. He worked in the foreign service for 12 years and was the Liberal MP for Etobicoke North from 1978 to 1984 and from 1988 to 1996. He was Minister of National Revenue under Turner and Minister of International Trade under Chrétien. He is now the chair of the Canada-India Business Council.
Jeremy K.B. Kinsman (1942-now), 2000-02. Born in Montreal, Kinsman went to Princeton and was a career diplomat. He was Ambassador to Russia and to Italy before going to the UK, and afterwards he was Ambassador to the European Union.
Melvin Samuel Cappe OC (1948-now), 2002-06. Born in Toronto and an alumnus of U of T and UWO, Mel Cappe had a long career in the civil service, culminating in becoming Clerk of the Privy Council from 1999 to 2002. He was later CEO of the Institute for Research on Public Policy from 2006 to 2011.
James R. Wright (1949-now), 2006-11. A Montrealer and McGill grad, Wright was a career diplomat, serving in a number of low level postings in Moscow DC and London before becoming High Commissioner.
Gordon Muir Campbell OBC (1948-now), 2011-now. A Vancouverite, Campbell went to Dartmouth College, was Mayor of Vancouver from 1986 to 1993, became leader of the BC Liberal Party in 1994, and was Premier of BC from 2001 to 2011.