Until 1875 the army in Canada was the British Army. In 1875, the domestic army was reorganized as the Canadian Militia, and an officer of the British Army held command as General Officer Commanding the Canadian Militia. This stood until 1904, when the Canadian Militia became commanded by a Canadian officer known as the Chief of the General Staff from 1904 to 1964, except for a period of time between 1919 and 1920 when he was called the Inspector-General and Military Counsellor. The Militia was renamed the Canadian Army in 1940. After unification the Army leader was Commander of Mobile Command from 1964 to 1993, Chief of the Land Staff from 1993 to 2011 and the Chief of the Army Staff and Commander of the Canadian Army since 2011.
The British commanders of the Canadian Militia were:
Gen. Sir Edward Selby Smyth KCMG, 1875–1880.
Lt.-Gen. Richard George Amherst Luard CB, 1880–1884.
Gen. Sir Frederick Dobson Middleton KCMG CB, 1884–1890.
Maj.-Gen. The Rt. Hon. Sir Ivor John Caradoc Herbert CB CMG KStJ, Bt., 1st Baron Treowen, 1890–1895.
Maj.-Gen. Sir William Julius Gascoigne KCMG, 1895–1898.
Lt.-Gen. Sir Edward Thomas Henry Hutton KCB KCMG, 1898–1900.
Maj.-Gen. Sir Richard Hebden O’Grady Haly KCB, 1900–1902.
Lt.-Gen. The Rt. Hon. Sir Douglas Mackinnon Baillie Hamilton Cochrane KCB KCVO, 12th Earl of Dundonald, 1902–1904.
The Canadian commanders of the Canadian Army have been:
Maj.-Gen. Sir Percy Henry Noel Lake KCB KCMG, 1904–1908.
Maj.-Gen. Sir William Dillon Otter KCB CVO VD, 1908–1910.
Maj.-Gen. Sir Colin John Mackenzie KCB, 1910–1913.
Maj.-Gen. Sir Willoughby Garnons Gwatkin KCMG CB, 1913–1919.
Gen. Sir Arthur William Currie GCMG KCB, 1919–1920.
Maj.-Gen. Sir James Howden MacBrien KCB CMG DSO CStJ, 1920–1927.
Maj.-Gen. Herbert Cyril Thacker CB CMG DSO, 1927–1928.
Gen. The Hon. Andrew George Latta McNaughton CH CB CMG DSO CD PC, 1929–1935.
Maj.-Gen. Ernest Charles Ashton CB CMG VD, 1935–1938.
Maj.-Gen. Thomas Victor Anderson DSO CD, 1938–1940.
Gen. The Hon. Henry Duncan Graham Crerar CH CB DSO KStJ CD PC, 1940–1941.
Lt.-Gen. Kenneth Stuart CB DSO MC, 1941–1943.
Lt.-Gen. John Carl Murchie CB CBE CD, 1944–1945.
Lt.-Gen. Charles Foulkes CC CB CBE DSO CD, 1945–1951.
Lt.-Gen. Guy Granville Simonds CC CB CBE DSO CD, 1951–1955.
Lt.-Gen. Howard Douglas Graham OC CVO CBE DSO ED CD,1955–1958.
Lt.-Gen. Samuel Findlay Clark CBE CD, 1958–1961.
Lt.-Gen. Geoffrey Walsh CBE DSO CD, 1961–1964.
Gen. Jean-Victor Allard CC CBE DSO ED CD, 1965–1966.
Lt.-Gen. William Alexander Beaumont Anderson OBE CD,1966–1969.
Lt.-Gen. Gilles-Antoine Turcot CM CMM CD, 1969–1972.
Lt.-Gen. William Alexander Milroy CM DSO CD, 1972–1973.
Lt.-Gen. Stanley Charles Waters CD, 1973–1975.
Lt.-Gen. Jacques Chouinard CMM CD, 1975–1977.
Lt.-Gen. Jean Jacques Paradis CMM CD, 1977–1981.
Lt.-Gen. Charles H. Belzile CM CMM CD, 1981–1986.
Lt.-Gen. James A. Fox CMM CD, 1986–1989.
Lt.-Gen. Kent R. Foster CMM CD, 1989–1991.
Lt.-Gen. James Cyrille Gervais CMM CD, 1991–1993.
Lt.-Gen. Gordon Reay CMM MBE CD, 1993–1996.
Gen. Joseph Gérard Maurice Baril OC CMM MSM CD, 1996–1997.
Lt.-Gen. William Leach CMM CD, 1997–2000.
Lt.-Gen. Michael Jeffery CMM CD, 2000–2003.
Gen. Rickey John Hillier OC CMM MSC CD, 2003–2005.
Lt.-Gen. Joseph Henri Paul Marc Caron CMM MSM CD, 2005–2006.
Lt.-Gen. Andrew Brooke Leslie CMM MSC MSM CD, 2006–2010.
Lt.-Gen. Peter John Devlin CMM MSC CD, 2010–2013.
Lt.-Gen. Marquis Hainse CMM MSC CD, 2013–now.